Notebook, 1993-

MATERIALS & METHODS - Painting - Sythetic Resin Paints

Acrylic Resins - Alkyd Resins - Cellulose Acetate - Cellulose Nitrate - Synthetics in Artists' Materials - Vinyl Resins

Prepared Artists' Materials - Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsion [PVA, Vinyl Polymer Tempera] - Acrylic Emulsion Paints [Acrylic Polymer Tempera] - Acrylic Solution Paints - Alkyd Resin Medium

[From: Kay, Reed. The Painters Guide to Studio Methods and Materials. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983.]

Vinyl Resins

Vinyl resins had been developed in the laboratory by 1840, but they were not in general use in America until 1928. The most commonly used vinyl acetate compounds are derived from coal, limestone, and water, which are processed to yield acetylene. This is then treated with acetic acid, using acetyl sulfuric acid as a catalyst, to yield vinyl acetate. By processing at higher temperatures in the presence of other catalysts, the vinyl acetate is polymerized and becomes polyvinyl acetate, its characteristics depending on the temperatures and catalysts used in its production.

Vinylite [Union Carbide Corp.] AYAF and Vinylite [Union Carbide Corp.] AYAT are vinyl acetate in crystal forms. They can be dissolved in toluene and in acetone, but not in turpentine or mineral spirits, to form a clear, syruplike varnish. Denatured alcohol is used to thin the varnish to a more dilute consistency. Polyvinyl acetate resin already dissolved in acetone to a syrup consistency is sold under the name of Vinylseal [Union Carbide Corp.] and has the same properties as the solution produced from the solid resin. The polyvinyl acetate films are transparent, flexible, and adhesive. Solutions of polyvinyl acetate in toluene have been employed as picture varnishes.

Another vinyl resin that has been occasionally employed as a medium for outdoor mural painting is polyvinyl chloride acetate. Methyl isobutyl ketone is used as the solvent for the resin. The painter should take precautions against inhaling the vapors of methyl isobutyl ketone, since it is a poisonous material. The chief advantage of the polyvinyl chloride acetate resin solution is said to be its resistance to the effects of weather.

Water emulsions of polyvinyl acetate are prepared by dissolving the resin in one of the solvents previously mentioned and combining it with water, using as an emulsifying agent such materials as sodium lauryl sulfate or ammonium oleate. The emulsion is milky white but becomes transparent as it dries. The dried films can absorb some moisture but are much more water resistant than is a material like casein. It is used as an adhesive for wood and paper, and attempts have been made to use it as a binder for artists' tempera. [pp. 188-189]

[Kay, Reed. The Painters Guide to Studio Methods and Materials. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983.]



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