Notebook, 1993-

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Notes from: Salome, Richard A., Ed. ˝Research Pertaining to the Gifted in Art.ţ In Translations, A Refereed Publication of the National Art Education Association. Part II. Vol. 2, No. 1. Spring 1992.

Research Pertaining to
the Gifted in Art

Characteristics can be grouped in two categories: [1] observable characteristics of art products and [2] observable behaviors of students.

Identification of three criteria, each of which significantly correlates with behaviors of the successful artist: [1] The ability to draw well; [2] The ability to evaluate, process, and order complex information; [3] Affective intensity. Data analyses indicate these are reliable and valid criteria which could be used to identify the gifted in art.

The commonly held belief that artistically gifted students can be identified through their work in the classroom has been questioned by Wilson and Wilson [1976] who report that gifted students often demonstrate their talents outside the school to avoid appearing different to their peers. Zimmerman [1985] cites several sources which support the belief that artistic giftedness will flourish if not interfered with through education [Brittain, 1961; Jackson, 1979; Meredith & Landin, 1957]. On the other hand, she also lists several sources which assert that artistically gifted students require learning arrangements especially designed for their particular needs [Eisner, 1966; Luca & Allen, 1974; Marland, 1972; Salome, 1974].

Creativity continues to be discussed as a goal for both average and gifted students in art, but research indicates tests of creativity and abilities in the arts are only minimally related [Clark & Zimmerman, 1984; Hurwitz, 1983]. Clark and Zimmerman also note that variations in the artwork of average and gifted students differ only in degree, not in kind.

Texts by Hurwitz [1983] and Clark and Zimmerman [1984] include information about exemplary art programs for the gifted offered throughout the country, ideas for initiating programs, resources, and program evaluation suggestions.

Alexander, R. A. "An Historical Perspective on the gifted and the talented in art." In Studies in Art Education., 22[2], 38-48. 1981.

Brittain, W. L. "Creative Art." In L. A. Fliegler [Ed.], Curriculum Planning for the Gifted. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1951.

Clark, G. & Zimmerman, E. Educating Artistically Talented Students. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press.

Eisner, E. "Arts Curricula for the Gifted." In Teachers College Record, 67[7], 492-501. 1966.

Gaitskell & Hurwitz, Children & Their Art, 1970. Hurwitz, 1983

Getzels, J. & Csikszenthmihalyi, M. The Creative Vision: A Longitudinal Study of Problem Finding. New York: Wiley. 1976.

Jackson, D. M. "The emerging national state concern." In A. H. Passow [Ed.], The Gifted and the Talented: Their Education and Development [pp. 45-62]. 78th Yearbook of NSSE. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1979.

Lark-Horovitz, B., Lewis, H. & Luca, M. Understanding Children's Art for Better Teaching. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill, Inc. 1967

Luca, M. & Allen, B. Teaching Gifted Children in Art, Grades One through Three. Sacramento, CA: California State Dept. of Education [ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. Ed 082433]. 1974.

Marland, S. P. Education of the Gifted and Talented. Vol. 1, Report to the Congress of the US by the US Commissioner of Education, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. 1972.

Meredith, P., & Landin, L. 100 Activities for Gifted Children. San Francisco, CA: Fearron. 1957.

Rogers, K. "The Relationship of Grouping Practices to the Education of the Gifted and Talented Learner." Executive Summary of the National Research Center for the Gifted and Talented. Storrs, CT: Author. 1991.

Salome, R. "Identifying and Instructing the gifted in art." In Art Education, 27 [3], 16-19. 1974.

Stalker, M. "Identification of the Gifted in Art." In Studies in Art Education. 22[2], 49-56. 1981.

Wilson, B., & Wilson, M. "Visual Narrative and the Artistically Gifted." In The Gifted Child Quarterly, 20[4], 432-447. 1976.

Witty, P. "Who are the Gifted?" In N. B. Henry [Ed.], Education for the Gifted [pp. 41-63], 57th Yearbook of NSSE, Part II. Chicago; Univ. of Chicago Press. 1958.

Zimmerman, E. Toward a Theory of Labeling Artistically Talented Students. In Studies in Art Education, 27[1], 31-42. 1985.

ALSO - For References to "The Relationship of Grouping Practices to the Education of the Gifted and Talented Learner." [Rogers, K. In Translations, A Refereed Publication of the National Art Education Association. Vol. 2, No. 1. Spring 1992.]:

Rogers, K. B. A Best-Evidence Synthesis of the Research on Accelerative Options for Gifted Students. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 1991.

Kulik, J. A., and Kulik, C-L. C. Ability Grouping and gifted Students. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis [Eds.], Handbook of Gifted Education [pp. 178-196]. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 1990.

Kulik, Slavin, R.E., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T, and Maruyama, G.

[Salome, Richard A., Ed. "Research Pertaining to the Gifted in Art." In Translations, A Refereed Publication of the National Art Education Association. Part II. Vol. 2, No. 1. Spring 1992.]



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