Notebook, 1993-


[From: Kyriazis, Constantine D. Eternal Greece. Translated by Harry T. Hionides. A Chat Publication.]

Chronological Tables

Minoan Civilization 3000-1450 B.C.
Cycladic Civilization [In the Cyclades Islands] 3200-1100 B.C.
Mycenaean Civilization 1600-11 B.C.
The Dark Ages 1100-800 B.C.
Archaic Period or Archaic Civilization 820-479 B.C.
The Persian Wars 499-323 B.C.
The Hellenistic Age 323 B.C. - 74 A.D.
Christian Era 14-325 A.D.
The Byzantine Period 330-1453 A.D.

Minoan Civilization 3000-1450 BC
The most ancient Greek civilization, the Minoan, flourished in Crete. It was named after the legendary king of the island. Many scholars still have doubts as to whether the word Minos was the name of a particular ruler or a title, such as that of the Pharaoh of Egypt, which was given to the kings.

Minoan civilization is also divided into sub-periods which can be confusing . . . . The chronology is therefore limited to the outstanding events which played a decisive role in the development of the civilization without going into too much detail. The manner of division of the eras followed here is based on the existence or the absence of palaces.

Early 2800-1900 B.C.
Middle 2000-1580 B.C.
Later 1580-1200 or 11 B.C.

3000-2600 B.C. Later Neolithic Age
2600-2000 B.C. Pre-Palace period [the potter's wheel first appears] 2000-17000 B.C. Old Palace period
(1950-1800 B.C. First great highpoint of civilization] [p. 12]
Circa 1700 B.C. Destruction of the first palaces
1700-1400 B.C. New Palace period
[1600-1450 B.C. Linear Script A (Palaces - courtyards - murals)]
1450 B.C. Linear Script B. Destruciton of Minoan centres. 1400 B.C. Destruction of the Palace of Minos 1300 B.C. New Palace of Knossos 1220 - 1100 B.C. Decline of Minoan Civilization

Cycladic Civilization [This thrived in the Cyclades Islands]
3200 B.C. Early Bronze Age
3200-2800 B.C. First phase
2800-2200 B.C. Second phase
2200-2000 B.C. Third phase
2000-1550 B.C. Middle Cycladic period. Large maritime centres are developed in Milos, Keos, Paros, Thera, Delos, Tenos, Siphnos, Syros and Amorgos that conduct trade with Crete and the remainder of Greece.

1500-1100 B.C. Late Cycladic period. Beginning of Mycenaean influence, and final decline in 1100 B.C.

Mycenaean Civilization
1600-1100 B.C. So called from the city of Mycenae founded in accordance with ancient Greek legend by Perseus, son of Zeus and Danae [see Perseus].

1400 B.C. High point of Mycenaean civilization. The Achaeans invade Greece from the North. Period of religious poetry.

1300 B.C. Mycenaean colonies are founded. Athens has its beginnings. The age of Theseus, Cecrops, Cadmus, Danaos, and Pelops. The Achaeans obtain cotnrol of mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, Ionian Islands, the islands of the Aegean, Crete, Rhodes, Lesbos, and a part of Cyprus. Period of warfare. The Seven against Thebes.

1225 B.C. Military expedition to Egypt.
1184 B.C. Fall of Troy. Circa 1100 B.C. The Dorian invasion

1100 B.C. Destruction of Mycenae which had in the age of Orestes become a secondary city with neighbouring Argos as the dominant city-state.

The Dark Ages
This lasted from 1100 to 800 B.C. Others say from 1200-800 B.C. [since there exist no historical records as points of reference].

1130 B.C. The use of iron becomes universal

1100 B.C. New migrations. The Aelians, Ionians, and Dorians settle in the South, Central and the Northern coasts of Asia Minor

1068 B.C. Death of Codrus, king of Athens. Monarchy is abolished. The Amphistyones.
900 B.C. Most monarchies are replaced by oligarchic rule in the city states.

Archaic Period or Archaic Civilization
820-479 B.C. Here begins the actual historical period of the Greek nation.
820 B.C. Laws of Lycourgos.
800 B.C. The Spartans occupy Amycles. The Delphic Amphictyony thrives [p. 13]
776 B.C. The first Olympic Games
770 B.C. Spartans occupy the Eurotas river valley
752 B.C. Archons rule Athens for ten-year terms of office
750 B.C. First Greek colony in Italy. Music Develops in the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Eastern influences in Greek art.

750-700 B.C. Homer, Odyssey, Iliad
705 B.C. Greek Architects build with stone
700 B.C. Athens forms a political unity with other towns of Attica. Hellenization of the Chalcidice. Hesiod flourishes. Human figures are principal motifs for pottery decoration.

682 B.C. Republic of the aristocracy in Athens. Term of office of the archons reduced to one year.
675 B.C. The poet Archilochus of Paros flourishes.
658 B.C. Megarians establish the colony of Byzantium [p. 14]
650 B.C. The forerunners of kouroi statues. Exile of the Alcmeonids.
632 B.C. Cylon attempts to seize power in Athens.
630 B.C. The Poet Alcman flourishes in Sparta.
621 B.C. The Draconian laws of Athens
610 B.C. The use of coins spreads in mainland Greece.
600 B.C. Black-figure vases produced in Athens. Lyric poetry reaches its peak. Sappho and Alcaeus flourish in Lesbos, Pittacus in Mitylene, Arion in Corinth. The Phocaeans found the colony of Massalia. The first Sacred War.

594 B.C. Reforms of Solon. New legislation and the disburdening ordnances [seisachtheia]. The second Sacred War.

580 B.C. Thales and Anaximaner flourish. The beginnings of philosophy and science. Reforms of Chilon in Sparta.

563 B.C. Croesus subdues the Greeks of Asia Minor.
561 B.C. Peisistratus is tyrant of Athens.
550 B.C. Doric architecture. Ionian influence on the architecture of mainland Greece and Crete .
548 B.C. Cyrus of Persia conquers Lydia, and Ionia comes under his domination. The temple of Aegina is built. The poets Hipponax and Phocylides and the philosopher Anaximenes flourish.

534 B.C. Thespis, the legendary founder of Greek tragedy, is the first victor in the drama contests of Athens.
530 B.C. The mathematician Pythagoras founds a religious brotherhood at Croton. Xenocrates established the Eleatic School of Philosophy

527 B. C. Hippias and Hipparchus succeed Peisistratus. The poets Simonides and Anacreon flourish.
525 B.C. The technique of red-figure vases develops.
520 B.C. Persia completes the occupation of Ionia. The poet Theognis flourishes.
514 B.C. Hipparchus is slain by Harmodius and Aristogeiton
510 B.C. Termination of the T yranny of the Peisistratids.
507 B.C. Cleisthenes establishes and broadens democratic government in Athens. Sparta becomes the foremost military power in the Peloponnese. The Sculptor Emboeus flourishes.

500 B.C. The philosopher Heracleitus teaches at Ephesus in Asia Minor. The expedition of Aristagoras against Naxos takes place. [p. 15]

The Persian Wars
499 B.C. Under the leadership of Histaeus and Aristagoras, the Ionians revolt agaisnt the Persians. The sculptors Canachus, Ageladas, and the geographer Hecataeus flourish.

498 B.C. The destruction of Sardis. Defeat of the Greeks near Ephesus. Pindar flourishes.
495 B.C. Defeat of the Greek fleet near Ladis.
494 B.C. The Ionian revolt is crushed. Miletus is destroyed.
493 B.C. Themistocles becomes archon eponymous. The first fortifications of Piraeus begin.
492 B.C. The first Persian expedition. Destruction of the Persian fleet of Mardonius
490 B.C. Datis and Artaphernes lead the ecxpedition against Greece. Battle of Marathon [September 12]. Gelon is tyrant of Gelas. The age of the philosopher Parmenides.

489 B.C. The expedition of Miltiades to Paros. His death in prison.
488 B.C. Leonidas becomes king of Sparta.
487 B.C. War between Athens and Aegina
484 B.C. Aeschylus wins his first prize in the dramatic festival of Athens.
483 B.C. The discovery of rich deposits of silver at Laurium enables Athens to build a powerful fleet.
481 B.C. The Greek city-states under the leadership of Sparta combine forces to fight the Persians.
480 B.C. The third Persian expedition, now led by Xerxes. The naval engagement at Artemesium, battle of Thermopylae [with Leonidas in command], the naval battle of Salamis [under Themistocles] and the destruction of the Acropolis of Athens by the Persians.

479 B.C. Victory of the Greeks at Plataea [under Pausanias and Aristides] and at Mycale [under Leotichides and Xanthippus]. The sculptor Myron flourishes in Athens.

478/477 B.C. Athens takes the lead in forming the Delos Confederacy. The fortification of Athens are built.
476/471 B.C. The expedition of Cimon. Aeschylus presents his Persians [472]. Themistocles is exiled [471]

468 B.C. Leading forces of the Delian confederacy, Cimon defeats the Persians near Eurymaedon. First prize of Sophocles over Aeschylus in the dramatic festival. He introduces for the first time more than two actors in a tragedy.

467 B.C. Aeschylus presents the Seven Against Thebes in Athens.
466 B.C. Messenian War. Athens and Sparta at Loggerheads.
462/461 B.C. Pericles and Ephialtes introduce democratic reforms in Athens. The [p. 16] philosopher Anaxagoras flourishes in Athens. The birth of Hippocrates [460].

459 B.C. Alliance of Megara and Athens. The first Peloponnesian War. Death of Themistocles in Magnesia.
458 B.C. Aeschylus presents his Oresteia.
457 B.C. The long walls of Athens are built. The Athenians occupy Boeotia.
455 B.C. Euripides presents his first tragedy.
454/453 B.C. The Treasury of the Delian Confederacy is moved to Athens. Athens becomes the dominant power in Greece.

449/448 B.C. Death of Cimon at the siege of Citium in Cyprus. Victory of the Athenians at Cyprian Salamis. Pericles dominates Athens.

448 B.C. The Athenian Empire reaches it apex.
447 B.C. Defeat of the Athenians at Coroneia. Beginning of the Athenian decline. The architects Ictinus and Callicrates begin construction of the Parthenon.

446 B.C. Thirty-year truce between the Athenians and Peloponnesians. Hippodamus plans Piraeus. The poet Pindar composes the last of his odes to survive.

444 B.C. The rule of Pericles. He is elected strategus every year. Foundation of the colony of Thurium in Lower Italy with Protagoras as the first law-giver of the new city. The philosopher Empedocles and the historian Herodotus flourish.

442/441 B.C. Sophocles presents his Antigone.
440 B.C. Construction of the third Long Wall. War between Athens and Samos.
438 B.C. The statue of Athena Parthenos by Phidias in unveiled.
437 B.C. The building of the Propylaeum begins.
435/432 B.C. Outbreak of war between Corcyra and Corinth. The Sophists Protagoras and Prodicus flourish. Accusations against Aspasia, Phidias and Anaxagoras. Phidias completes the freize of the Parthenon.

431 B.C Outbreak of the Peloponnesian war. The Thebans attack Plataea but fail. The Spartans invade Attica. Euripides presents his Medea.

430 B.C. The plague strikes Athens. The sculptor Polycleitus flourishes.
429/424 B.C. Pericles is condemned, but following a speech is again elected strategus. Death of Pericles. Hippocrates flourishes. Sophocles presents the Oedipus Rex. Plataea is destroyed. Demosthenes leads an expdition into Acarnania. Anaxagoras dies at Lampsacus. Victories of the Athenians at Pylos and Sphacteria. Cleon flourishes. The historian Thucydides serves as strategus and he is finally exiled.

423 B.C. Truce in the war lasting a year. Aristophanes produces the Clouds.
422 B.C. Defeat of the Athenians at Amphipolis in Thrace. Deaths of Brasidas and Cleon. [p. 17]

421 B.C. The Nicaean Peace [between Sparta and Athens]. Aristophanes presents his Peace.
420 B.C. Alliance of the Athenians, Argives, Mantineans, and Eleians. The historian Hellanicus and the philosopher Democritus flourish.

419 B.C. Athens again declares war.
418/416 B.C. Battle of Mantinea and defeat of the Argives. The Athenians occupy Melos. Agathon wins prize in drama festival.

415 B.C. The Athenian fleet under Alcibiades sails off for Syracuse. Trial of the desecrated Hermae. Alcibiades is recalled, but flees to Sparta. The sculptors Strongylion, Agoracritos and Alcamenes fourish, also the orator Andacides. Euripides produces the Trojan Women. and Aristophanes The Birds..

413 B.C. Naval engagement of Syracuse where the Athenian fleet is destroyed. The Spartans occupy Dekelia. Alcibiades abandons Sparta for the court of the Persian Tissaphernes. Sophocles presents the Electra..

411/409 B.C. Return of Alcibiades. He commands army and fleet. Victory of the Athenians under Thrasybulos and Alcibiades. The Lysistrata. of Aristophanes. The orator Antiphon is condemned to death. Victory of Alcibiades at Cyzicus and occupation of Byzantium. Hippodamus plans the new city of Rhodes.

409/406 B.C. The Erechtheium is completed on the Acrpolis. The Spartans under Lysandros are victorious [407] in Notium. But thte Athenians win the battle of Arginousae.

406 B.C. The Strategoi of Athens are court-martialled. Deaths of Euripides and Sophocles.
405 B.C. Athenians defeated at Aegospotamoi. Aristophanes produces his Frogs..
404 B.C. Lysandros occupies Athens and the Long Walls are torn down. Alcibiades is murderrd in Asia Minor. The Thirty Tyrants rule.

403 B.C. Thrasybulos seizes Piraeus and defeats the tyrants of Munychia. A general amnesty is given. Lysias fourishes.

401 B.C. Xenophon leads the 10,000 to the sea. The Oedipus at Colonus. of Sophocles is presented.
399 B.C. Socrates is condemned to death and drinks the hemlock
393 B.C. Conon rebuilds the Long Walls. Isocrates flourishes with the professors of rhetoric. Antisthenes establishes the school of Cynics.

386 B.C. The Antalcidaean Peace between the Persians and Greeks. Plato begins teaching at the Academy.
380 B.C. Isocrates calls upon the Greeks to unite. The sculptors Scopas, Praxiteles, the painters Timonthes, Zeuxis and Parrhasius flourish. [p. 18]

379 B.C. Pelopidas expels the Spartans from the Cadmeian citadel of Thebes. Alliance between the Athenians and Thebans.

374 B.C. Epaminondas routs the Spartans at Leuctra. The hegemony of Thebes in continental Greece. The sculptor Kephisodon and the philosopher Eudoxus flourish.

369 B.C. Foundation of Messene
359 B.C. Philip II becomes king of Macedonia. The painters Euphranor and Aristeides flourish
356 B.C. The Phocian Sacred War. Philip ravishes Phocis.
351 B.C. The First Philippic of Demosthenes.
350 B.C. Praxiteles produces his finest works
348 B.C. Philip destroys Olynthus
347 B.C. Death of Plato. Speusippus succeeds him at the Academy.
343 B.C. Aristotle becomes tutor of Alexander the Great.
338 B.C. Philip defeats the Athenians and their allies at Chaeroneia and becomes generalissimo of the Greeks agaisnt the Persians.

336 B.C. Philip is assassinated and is succeeded by Alexander. Diogenes the Cynic flourishes as well as the painters Apelles and Protogenes and the sculptor Lysippus.

335 B.C. Alexander of Macedon [the Great] destroys Thebes. Aristotle founds a school in Athens which he names the Lyceum.

334 B.C. Alexander marches against the Persians. His victory at Granicus.
333 B.C. Alexander wins the battle of Issus.
332 B.C. The siege of Tyre and the foundation of Alexandria.
331 B.C. The victory at Arbela.
330 B.C. Death of Darius and the end of the Persian monarchy. Statues of Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles are erected in the new theatre of Dionysos. [p. 19]

327 B. C. March of Alexander into India.
323 B.C. The death of Alexander the Great in Babylon. Epicurus visits Athens.


[Kyriazis, Constantine D. Eternal Greece. Translated by Harry T. Hionides. A Chat Publication.]



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